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Lakes and Ponds

Name of Lake or Pond
District
Jhirradaha Arghakhanchi
Kamal Pokhari Arghakhanchi
Khandaha Arghakhanchi
Shalyangdaha Arghakhanchi
Gauchaur Arghakhanchi
Rudra Tal Baglung
Jalpa Khagar Tal Baglung
Chhubhal Lake Bajhang
Shurma Sarowar Bajhang
Nilkhati Bajhang
Kund Bajhang
Khapar Bajhang
Dhaha Bajhang
Hila Daha Bajhang
Raksya Tal Bajhang
Rani Talau Banke
Siddha Pokhari Bhaktapur
Bhaju Pokhari Bhaktapur
Kamal Pokhari Bhaktapur
Salpa Pokhari Bhojpur
Kala Pokhari Bhojpur
Hansa Pokhari Bhojpur
Panchakanya Pokhari Bhojpur
Bhimle Tal Chitwan
Devi Tal Chitwan
Khageri Tal Chitwan
Munda Tal Chitwan
Mujura Tal Chitwan
Beeshazar Tal Chitwan
Nanda Bhauju Tal Chitwan
Tamar Tal Chitwan
Tami Tal Chitwan
Bahrakunedaha Dang
Charange Dang
Gangasagar Dhanusha
Dhanussagar Dhanusha
Dugthawatee Dhanusha
Aragaja Dhanusha
Kalimchokmai Kunda Dolakha
Panch pokhari Dolakha
Shey Phoksundo Dolpa
Jogdulla Dolpa
Sundaaha Dolpa
Gamakunidaha Dolpa
Rigma Tal Dolpa
Putha Tal Dolpa
Pungma Tal Dolpa
Khaptad Daha Doti
Kaluchhuma Tal Gorkha
Naradkunda Tal Gorkha
Sano Dudh Pokhari Gorkha
Thulo Dudh Pokhari Gorkha
Tatopani Gorkha
Bhulbhulekhar Gorkha
Jadya Daha Humla
Selim Humla
Lade Humla
Nilapani Humla
Mai Pokhari Illam
Dhauli Daha Jumla
Giri Daha Jumla
Dhudh Kunda Jumla
Shyarpudaha Kailali
Kamal Pokhari Kailali
Ghoda Ghodi Lake Kailali
Dhaulidaha Kalikot
Joginidaha Kalikot
Bistadaha Kalikot
Garidaga Kalikot
Dahathekidaha Kalikot
Shankhudaha Kalikot
Rani Tal Kanchanpur
Banjha Tal Kapilbastu
Sagara Tal Kapilbastu
Juwa Tal Kapilbastu
Sisawa Tal Kapilbastu
Niglee Tal Kapilbastu
Bijuwal Tal Kapilbastu
Jagadishpur Resevour Kapilbastu
Fewa Tal Kaski
Rupa Tal Kaski
Begnas Tal Kaski
Dipang Tal Kaski
Maidee Tal Kaski
Khalte Tal Kaski
Taudaha Kathmandu
Indradaha Kathmandu
Nag Pokhari Kathmandu
Rani Pokhari Kathmandu
Balaju Water Garden Kathmandu
Dew Pokhari Kavrepalanchok
Narayan Pokhari Kavrepalanchok
Mahadev Pokhari Kavrepalanchok
Tarokhaseko Pokhari Kavrepalanchok
Name of Lake or Pond
District
Baraha Pokhari Khotang
Guwaldaha Lalitpur
Katuwaldaha Lalitpur
Godawari Kunda Lalitpur
Nagdaha Lalitpur
Bojho Pokhari Lalitpur
Saraswatidaha Lalitpur
Baraha Pokhari Lamjung
Dudha pokhari Lamjung
Barunsar Mahottari
Bhargawasar Mahottari
Mahodari Mahottari
Indra Sarobar Makawanpur
Dharma Pokhari Manang
Dimla Pokhari Manang
Him Pokhari Manang
Pongkar Manang
Tilicho Tal Manang
Raradaha Mugu
Rin Mokshayadaha Mugu
Chhayanathdaha Mugu
Teligha Mustang
Damodar Kund Mustang
Tatopani Kund Mustang
Suryakunda Nuwakot
Jore Pokhari Pachthar
Suke Pokhari Pachthar
Namdu Pokhari Pachthar
Ratamate Pokhari Pachthar
Baraha Pokhari Pachthar
Suke Tal Palpa
Satyawati Tal Palpa
Mallaj Tal Parbat
Khairi Barah Tal Parbat
Pyasbarahi tal Parbat
Banjari Tal Parsa
Bhairab Kunda Rasuwa
Dudh Kunda Rasuwa
Ganesh Kunda Rasuwa
Gosain Kunda Rasuwa
Jageswar Kunda Rasuwa
Kalo – seto Kunda Rasuwa
Saraswati Kunda Rasuwa
Surya Kunda Rasuwa
Sapru Pokhari Rukum
Kamal Pokhari Rukum
Kubhinde Daha Salyan
Ghoda Daha Saptari
Kalyan Saptari
Kamala Saptari
Mahuli Saptari
Manik Saptari
Ghudda Sarlahi
Madimain Sarlahi
Sabha Pokhari Shankhuwasabha
Gosa Pokhari Shankhuwasabha
Rata Pokhari Shankhuwasabha
Banduke Pokhari Shankhuwasabha
Kala Pokhari Shankhuwasabha
Jumlyaha Pokhari Shankhuwasabha
Panch Pokhari Shankhuwasabha
Kapdane Pokhari Shankhuwasabha
Bhairawa Kunda Sindhupalchok
Surya Kunda Sindhupalchok
Panch Pokhari Sindhupalchok
Syabru Pokhari Sindhupalchok
Dudhkunda Solukhumbhu
Dudh Pokhari Solukhumbhu
Goke Pokhari Solukhumbhu
Imja Lake Solukhumbhu
Gokyo Lake Solukhumbhu
Jalim Pokhari Solukhumbhu
Namche Pokhari Solukhumbhu
Salpa Pokhari Solukhumbhu
Simrakhanidaha Surkhet
Jajura Tal Surkhet
Baraha Tal Surkhet
Bulbule Tal Surkhet
Manas Tal Taplejung
Nurak Pokhari Taplejung
Siwa Pokhari Taplejung
Kali Pokhari Taplejung
Rale Pokhari Taplejung
Iwa Pokhari Taplejung
Tin Pokhari Taplejung
Pancha Pokhari Taplejung
Jalijale Pokhari Taplejung
Chilling Pokhari Terhathum
Tiche Pokhari Terhathum
Siddamarga Pokhari Terhathum
Chitre Pokhari Terhathum
Lam Pokhari Terhathum
Rautahako Udayapur
Suke Pokhari Udayapur
Map of River Nepal

Mao of river in nepal

RiversRivers in Nepal are treated as goddesses. They are the ever flowing and inspiring source of beauty, abundance and infinite adventure. The rugged topography, extreme variations and excessive snow melting in Nepal make this mountain kingdom blessed with blosoming, flowering rivers, running across the country. This makes Nepal an obvious choice for river adventure.

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River journeys in Nepal are electrifying and nerve thrilling. Your life flashes before you as you comfortably hurtle towards monster boulders and towering walls of water. So come let us indulge in this maddening and bone chilling experience.

Fast Facts

Name Location Speciality Distance Duration
Sunkoshi Eastern Nepal The Golden River 270 km 9 days
Trisuli Central Nepal Best for White water rafting 38 km ½ day
Marshyangdi Western Nepal The Thrilling River 47 km 4 days
Seti Western Nepal The Isolated River 35 km 2 days
Kali Gandaki Western Nepal Best for Kayaking 70 km 5 days
Karnali Mid Western Nepal Largest and longest river 180 km 5 days

Ultimate Sports Adventure & Activities
Nepal is a country of adventures. The raging rivers, high mountains, exotic valleys and jungle safaris are all sources of adventure. Cited below are some of the most thrilling and engaging adventurous activities of Nepal.

River Rafting/White Water Rafting
River Rafting is journeying on torrential river on an inflatable rubber boat. A River Raft is the most enjoyable way of checking one’s guts. Both amateur and experienced rafters equally enjoy it. A river trip also provides the opportunity for geological surveys and fishing.

In a country like Nepal, blessed by Himalayan rivers, a river trip is one of the best ways to explore a typical cross section of the country’s natural as well as ethno-cultural heritage. The river is regarded as a form of goddess and is used for the purpose of various religious rituals under both Hinduism and Buddhism. A variety of cultural activities can be witnessed being performed along the river. The adjoining slopes of the river often harbor dense vegetation and interesting wildlife.

Kayaking
A water sport, kayaking is a very enjoyable river adventure, specially in the blossoming rivers of Nepal. Kayaks are made from a special type of plastic and have floatation devices inserted to aid buoyancy. Kayakers move through the water with a double blade paddle, and are able to negotiate rapids and obstacles on the river.

With its wide range of rivers and wealth of challenging rapids, Nepal is the perfect destination for Kayakink. Whether you are a total beginner or an experienced white water kayaker keen to tackle one of the challenging rivers, Nepal is ideal for you.

Sightseeing
One can spend hours sitting at the banks of Nepal rivers and watching the waves playing with each other admist the most earthen background. An evening more relaxed, soothing and calm is hard to imagine. If you long for a dream-like, heavenly experience, then let your soul feel the tranquility of being near to Nature’s one of the most amiable gift i.e. the rivers of Nepal.

Know-How of River Basins
The splendid rivers of Nepal can be divided into three categories in accordance to their origins. The first category comprises the three main river systems of the country – the Koshi, Gandaki and Karnali river systems, all of them originating from glaciers and snow-fed lakes.

The Koshi River System

  • The Koshi river system consists of Tamor, Arun, Dudhkoshi, Likhu, Tamakoshi, Sunkoshi and Indravati rivers.
  • The Arun and Sunkoshi originate in Tibet. The confluence of these rivers is at Tribeni (near Dharan) in Sagarmatha Zone.
  • Flowing for almost 10 kms through a narrow gorge before entering the plains, the ‘Sapta Kosi’ or simply the ‘Koshi’, swollen with the waters of the seven rivers, finally merges into the Ganges.
  • The Kali Gandaki originates in Mustang and converges with the Trishuli at Deoghat in Chitwan. The river is then called the ‘Narayani’ and goes on to meet the Ganges.

The Gandaki River System

  • The Kali Gandaki originates in Mustang and converges with the Trishuli at Deoghat in Chitwan. The river is then called the ‘Narayani’ and goes on to meet the Ganges.
  • The Gandaki river system in central Nepal consists of the Kali Gandaki, Budhi Gandaki, Marsyanghi, Trishuli, Seti, Madi and Daraundi rivers.
  • The Kaligandaki is the longest river and the Trishuli, the main tributary of this system.

The Karnali River System

  • The Karnali river system in Western Nepal consists of the Humla Karnali, Mugu Karnali, Seti and Bheri rivers and is the longest river system in the country.
  • The Humla Karnali, which rises in Tibet, is the main tributary. After entering India, this river assumes the name Gogra.

1 Mount Everest/SagarMatha /Chomolungma 8,848m 29,028ft Mahalangur Himalaya Nepal / Tibet
2 K2/Godwin Austen 8,611m 28,251ft Baltoro Karakoram Kashmir (Pakistan / Xinjiang)
3 Kangchenjunga 8,586m 28,169ft Kangchenjunga Himalaya Nepal / India
4 Lhotse 8,516m 27,940ft Mahalangur Himalaya Nepal / Tibet
5 Makalu 8,485m 27,838ft Mahalangur Himalaya Nepal / Tibet
6 Cho Oyu 8,188m 26,864ft Mahalangur Himalaya Nepal / Tibet
7 Dhaulagiri 8,167m 26,795ft Dhaulagiri Himalaya Nepal
8 Manaslu 8,163m 26,781ft Manaslu Himalaya Nepal
9 Nanga Parbat 8,125m 26,657ft Nanga Parbat Himalaya Kashmir (Pakistan)
10 Annapurna I 8,091m 26,545ft Annapurna Himalaya Nepal

S.N. Name of the peaks Height Mountain Region S.N. Name of the Peaks Height Mountain Region
01 Bhrikuti 6364 Damodar 12 Gyalzen Peak 6151 Jugal
02 Bhemadang RI 6150 Langtang 13 Jongsang Peak 7483 Janak
03 Bhairab Takura 6799 Jugal 14 Karyolung 6511 Rolwalling
04 Chamar 7187 Serang 15 Kirantchuli, Tent. 7365 K. Junga
05 Changla 6563 Changla 16 Langtang – RI 7205 Langtang
06 Dorje Lhakpa 6966 Jugal 17 Leonpo Gang 6979 Jugal
07 Ghanchenpo 6387 Jugal 18 Nala Kankar 6062 Nalakanka
08 Gandharava 6248 Annapurna 19 Nepal Peak 6910 K. Junga
09 Gurja Himal 7193 Dhaulagiri 20 Ohmi Kanga 6829 Janak
10 Gurkarpo – RI 6891 Jugal 21 Phurbi Chyachcu 6631 Jugal
11 Gyachung Kang 7952 Khumbu 22 Urknmang 6151 Jugal

B. Four Peaks opened to foreign expeditions only when Nepalese has climbed them and foreign Joint expedition:

S.N. Name of the peaks Ht. Mt. Mountain. Region S.N. Name of the Peaks Ht. in Mt. Mountain Region
01 Bobaye 6808 Gurans/Yoka 03 Jethi Bahurani 6850 Gurans
02 Ganesh 1 (Yangra) 7429 Ganesh 04 Khang Sar Kang 7485 Annapurna

C. 98 Peaks open for foreign expeditions:

S.N. Name of the peaks Ht. Mt. Mountain. Region S.N Name of the Peaks Ht. in Mt. Mountain Region
01 Ama Dablam 6812 Khumbu 50 Kangtega 6779 Khumbu
02 Annapurna I 8091 Annapurna 51 Kanjeralwa 6612 Kanjiroba
03 AnnapurnaII 7937 Annapurna 52 Kanjiroba 6883 Kanjiroba
04 AnnapurnaIII 7555 Annapurna 53 Khatang 6782 Rolwalling
05 AnnapurnaIV 7525 Annapurna 54 Lamjung Himal 6983 Annapurna
06 Annapurna South 7219 Annapurna 55 Langshisa – RI 6427 Jugal
07 Api 7132 Gurans 56 Langtang Lirung 7234 Langtang
08 Api west 7100 Byas-Rishi 57 Lhotse 8516 Khumbu
09 Barun Tse 7129 Barun 58 Lhotse Shar 8400 Khumbu
10 Baudha 6672 Mansiri 59 Lobuche west 6145 Khumbu
11 Chamlang 7319 Mahalangur 60 Lemgpo Peak 6954 K. junga
12 Cheo Himal 6820 Peri 61 Makalu I 8463 Mahalangur
13 Chobuje 6685 Rollwaling 62 Makalu II 7678 Mahalangur
14 Cholatse 6440 Khumbu 63 Manapathi 6380 Dhaulagiri
15 Cho-o-You 8201 Khumbu 64 Manaslu 8163 Mansiri
16 Cho Polu 6711 Mahalangur 65 Manaslu North 7157 Mansiri
17 Churen 7371 Dhaulagiri 66 Nampa 6755 Gurans
18 Dhampus 6012 Mukut 67 Ngojumbakang 7743 Khumbu
19 Dhaulagiri I 8167 Dhaulagiri 68 Nilgiri Central 6940 Nilgiri
20 Dhaulagiri II 7751 Dhaulagiri 69 Nilgiri North 7061 Nilgiri
21 Dhaulagiri III 7715 Dhaulagiri 70 Nilgiri South 6839 Nilgiri
22 Dhaulagiri IV 7661 Dhaulagiri 71 Numbur 6957 Rolwalling
23 Dhaulagiri V 7618 Dhaulagiri 72 Nuptse 7855 Khumbu
24 Dhaulagiri VI 7268 Dhaulagiri 73 Ngadi Chuli P-29 7871 Mansiri
25 Drangnag RI 6801 Rolwaling 74 Nampa South 6580 Byas Rishi
26 Fimkof 6697 Saipal 75 Patrasi 6450 Patrasi
27 Fimkof West 6645 Saipal 76 Pumori 7161 Khumbu
28 Ganesh II 7111 Ganesh 77 Putha Hiun Chuli 7246 Dhaulagiri
29 Ganesh III 7110 Ganesh 78 Pathibhara Chuli 7125 K. junga
30 Ganesh IV 7052 Ganesh 79 Pasanlhamu Chuli 7351 Mahalangur
31 Ganesh V 6986 Ganesh 80 Raksha Urai 6593 Urai Lekha
32 Gangapurna 7455 Annapurna 81 Saipal 7031 Gurans
33 Gauri Shanker 7134 Rolwaling 82 Santi Shikhar 7591 Mahalangur
34 Gimigela Chuli 7350 Kanchenjunga 83 Shartse 7459 Khumbu
35 Gyajikang 7038 Peri Himal 84 Sisne 5859 Sisne
36 Himal Chuli East 7893 Mansiri 85 Sita Chuchura 6611 Dhaulagiri
37 Himal Chuli North 7371 Mansiri 86 Saipal East 6882 Saipal
38 Himal Chuli West 7540 Mansiri 87 Surma Sarovar 6523 Surma S.
39 Himlung Himal 7126 Peri 88 Sagarmatha 8848 Khumbu
40 Hungde 6556 Mukut 89 Shey Shikhar 6139 Kanjiroba
41 Jagdula Peak 5764 Jagdula 90 Tawoche 6501 Khumbu
42 Kumbhakarna 7710 Kanchenjunga 91 Thamserku 6623 Khumbu
43 Kangbachen 7903 Kanchenjunga 92 Tilicho Peak 7134 Annapurna
44 Kagmara 5960 Kanjiroba 93 Tukuche Peak 6920 Dhaulagiri
45 Kande Hiun Chuli 6627 Patarasi 94 Tripura Hml Chuli 6563 Kanjiroba
46 Kanchenjunga 8586 Kanchenjunga 95 Tsokarpo 6518 Kanjiroba
47 Kanchenjunga 8476 Kanchenjunga 96 Tarkekang 7193 Annapurna
48 Kanchenjunga S. 8476 Kanchenjunga 97 Varahashikhar 7647 Annapurna
49 Kang Guru 6981 Peri 98 Yalungkang 8505 K. junga

Flora and Fauna in Nepal:

Nepal is a tiny but diverse country in terms of culture, language, religion and floral and fauna.

The elevation of Nepal ranges from the lowland of the Terai (southern part of Nepal) to the highest peak in the world, Nepal has the most magnificent sceneries in the world and the great variety of flora and fauna. Its rich feature of diversity is incomparable elsewhere in the world. Between Nepal’s geographical extremes, one may find every type of vegetation, from the treeless steppes of the Trans-Himalayan region, the birch, silver fir, larch and hemlock of the higher valleys to the oak, pine and rhododendron of the intermediate altitudes and the great Sal and Sissau forests of the south.

Tropical Zone (up to 1000m):

This region includes the Terai (lowland) and the large valleys or Duns found between successive hill ranges. The main tree species of this area are Sal, Semal, Asna and many more and Pinus Rosburghi occurring on the higher ridges of the Churia hills, which reaches an altitude of 1800m. Two-meter high elephant grass originally covered much of the Dun valleys but now it has been largely replaced by agricultural settlements. This tropical zone is the richest area of Nepal for wildlife such as gaurs, buffaloes, leopards, four species of deer, tigers and some other animals like rhinoceros, swamp deer and hot deer. Not only these, one can find two species of crocodile and the Gangetic dolphin in the rivers. The major birds are the peacock, jungle fowl and black partridge, while migrated duck and geese swarm in the ponds and lakes in Terai.

Subtropical Zone (1100m-2400m):

This region includes the Mahabharat Lekh, which rises to the height of about 2400m and involves the outer wall of the Himalayan range. Great rivers such as the Karnali, Narayani, and Sapta Koshi flow through this area into the broad plains of the Terai. The trees one can finds in this region are Acer oblongum, various species of oak and rhododendron which cover the higher slopes where deforestation has not yet taken place. Orchids clothe the stems of trees and gigantic climbers smother their heads. The variety and abundance of the flora and fauna increase progressively with decreasing altitude and increasing luxuriance of the vegetation.

This zone is generally poor in wildlife. The only mammals, which are at all widely distributed, are wild boar, barking deer, Srow, Ghoral and bears. Different varieties of birds are also found in this zone and different varieties of birds are also found in this zone.

Temperate Zone (2500m- 4000m):

Northward, on the lower slopes and spurs of the great Himalayas, oaks and pines are the dominant species up to an altitude of about 2400m above which are found dense conifer forests including Picea, Tusga, Larix and Abies-spp. The latter is usually confined to higher elevations with Betula typically marking the upper limit of the tree line. At about 3600 to 3900m, rhododendron, bamboo and maples are commonly associated with the coniferous zone. Composition of the forest varies considerably with coniferous predominating in the west and eracaceous in the east. The wildlife of this region includes the Himalayan bear, serow, ghoral, barking deer and wild-boar, with Himalayan thar sometimes being seen on steep rocky faces above 2400m. The red panda is among the more interesting of the mammals found in this zone; it appears to be fairly distributed in suitable areas of the forest above 1800m. The rich and varied avifauna of this region includes several spectacular and beautiful pheasants, including the Danfe pheasant, Nepal’s national bird.

Sub alpine and Alpine Zone (More than 4000m):

Above the tree line, rhododendron, juniper scrub and other woody vegetation may extend to about 4200m.This continues up to the lower limit of perpetual snow and ice at about 5100m. The mammalian faun is sparse and unlikely to include any species other than Himalayan marmots, mouse hare, thar, musk deer, snow leopard and occasionally blue sheep. In former times, the wild Yak and great Tibetan sheep could also be seen in this region and there is possibility that some of them may still be survived in the areas like Dolpa and Humla, and birds like lammergeyer, snowcock, snowpatridge, and bunting, with redstarts and dippers often seen along the streams and rivulets. Yaks are the only livestock, which thrive at high altitude. They serve both back and draught animals.

With this wonderful flora and fauna, Nepal has been known to be the paradise for wildlife, animals and bird lovers and it is the best destination for the naturalists and foresters.

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SwayambhunathThe Buddhist temple of Swayambhunath, situated on the top of a hill, west of Kathmandu, is one of the most popular, holy and instantly recognizable symbols of Nepal. The temple is colloquially known as the ‘monkey temple’ because of the large tribe of roving monkeys who guard the temple.

Fast Facts

Location Kathmandu Valley
Era Before 5th century
Unique Feature 365 steps lead to the Temple that is believed to be ‘Self-Created’ or ‘Self-Existence’
Category Wold Heritage Site

Major Attractions
The Stupa
Swayambhunath Stupa is a golden spire crowning a conical wooded hill. It is the most ancient and enigmatic of all the holy shrines in Kathmandu Valley. It has a lofty white dome and a glittering golden spire that are visible from all sides of the valley. Historical records found on a stone inscription give evidence that the stupa was already an important Buddhist pilgrimage destination by the 5th century A.D. i.e. before the coming of Buddhism in the valley.

Area Surrounding The Stupa
The surroundings of Swyambhunarayan Stupa consists of chaityas, temples, painted images of deities and numerous other religious objects.

Harati Temple
The temple is dedicated to the goddess of smallpox and other epidemics. The presence of the Harati Devi temple signifies the intermingling of the pantheons of Hinduism and Buddhism in Nepal.

Palace Of Peace
Atop Syambunath hill is another fascinating, though less visited temple, Shantipur, popularly known as the ‘Palace of Peace’. It is said that inside the secret underground chamber of the temple lives the 8th century Tantric master, Shantikar Acharya. The master, it is believed, has lived through centuries and has full control on the weather and the King of Kathmandu must go to him in times of drought.

Architecture
Amazing to look at, the architectural beauty of Swayambunath Temple gives way to the feelings of reverence and adoration. The stupa consists of a dome at the base and a cubical structure with eyes of Buddha looking in all the four directions. There are pentagonal Toran present above each of the four sides with statues engraved in them. Behind and above the torana there are thirteen tiers. Above all the tiers, there is a small space above which the Gajur is present.

Mythology
SwayambhunathAccording to Swayambhu Puran, the entire Kathmandu valley was once filled with an enormous lake, out of which grew a mystical Lotus. The valley came to be known as Swayambhu, meaning ‘Self-Created’ or ‘Self-Existent’. The Bodhistava Manjushri had a vision of the lotus at Swayambhu and traveled there to worship it.

In order to make the site more accessible to human pilgrims, Manjushri cut a gorge through the mountains surrounding the valley. The water drained out of the lake, leaving the valley in which Kathmandu now lies. The lotus was transformed into a hill and the flower become the Swayambhunath stupa.

Symbology
The dome at the base represents the entire world. When a person gets free (represented by eyes of mercy and self knowledge) from the bonds of the world, the person reaches the state a bit higher. After that, the person has to cross thirteen stages represented by the tiers before attaining Nirvana (salvation).

How To Reach
There are two ways to reach the top of the monkey temple: the first and the most common is to get there with a car but the most beautiful way to reach the top of this amazing temple is to climb the 365 stairs of the temple.

Pashupatinath TemplePashupatinath Temple, with its astonishing architectural beauty, stands as a symbol of faith, religion, culture and tradition. Regarded as the most sacred temple of Hindu Lord Shiva in the world, Pashupatinath Temple’s existence dates back to 400 A.D. The richly-ornamented pagoda houses the sacred linga or phallic symbol of Lord Shiva. Thousands of pilgrims from all over the world come to pay homage to this temple, that is also known as ‘The Temple of Living Beings’.

Fast Facts

Location 5 km north-east of Kathmandu
Category UNESCO listed World Cultural Heritage Site
Era Prior to 400 A.D
Unique Features » Only four priests, appointed by the King, can touch the idol of Lord Shiva.
» The priests are always from south India.
» It is believed that this tradition have been started by Sage Shankaracharaya in 6th century.

What to See
» Gold-painted images of guardian deities
» Chaturmukha (four-faced statue)
» Chadeshvar, an inscribed Licchavi linga from the 7th century
» Brahma Temple
» Dharmashila, a stone where sacred oaths are taken
» Arya Ghat
» Gauri Ghat (holy bath)
» Pandra Shivalaya (15 shrines)
» Gorakhnath and Vishwarup Temples
» Guhyeshwari (Guhjeshwari) Temple
» Kirateshwar Mahadeva Mandir and Surya Ghat

Architecture
» The two level roofs of the temple are embellished with gold and the four main doors are adorned with silver.
» The temple is famous for its awe-inspiring and astounding pagoda architecture.
» The western door has a statue of a large Bull, Nandi, is ornamented in gold. This black stone idol, about 6 ft in height and circumference, adds to the beauty and charisma of the temple.
» The present architectural nature of Pashupatinath temple came into existence as a result of renovation by Queen Gangadevi during the reign of Shivasimha Malla (1578-1620 AD).

Legends
There are many legends describing as to how the temple of Lord Pashupatinath came to existence here. Some of them are narrated below:-

The Cow Legend
Legend says that Lord Shiva once took the form of an antelope and sported unkown in the forest on Bagmati river’s east bank. The gods later caught up with him, and grabbing him by the horn, forced him to resume his divine form. The broken horn was worshipped as a linga but overtime it was buried and lost. Centuries later an astonished herdsmen found one of his cows showering the earth with milk. Digging deep at the site, he discovered the divine linga of Pashupatinath.

The Linchchhavi Legend
According to Gopalraj Vamsavali, the oldest ever chronicle in Nepal, this temple was built by Supus Padeva, a Linchchhavi King, who according to the stone inscription erected by Jayadeva 11 in the courtyard of Pashupatinath in 753 AD, happened to be the ruler 39 generations before Manadeva (464-505 AD).

The Devalaya Legend
Another chronicle states that Pashupatinath Temple was in the form of Linga shaped Devalaya before Supus Padeva constructed a five storey temple of Pashupatinath in this place. As the time passed, the need for reparing and renovating this temple arose. It is learnt that this temple was reconsturcted by a mediaeval King named Shivadeva (1099-1126 AD). It was renovated by Ananta Malla adding a roof to it.

Festivals
» Pashupati area is regarded as one of the most important places of pilgrimages for the followers of Hinduism. Thousands of devotees from within and outside the country come to pay homage to Pashupatinath every day. And on special occasions like Ekadasi, Sankranti, Mahashivratri, Teej Akshaya, Rakshabandhan, Grahana (eclipse), Poornima (Full moon day) the whole atmosphere turns festive and mirthful as people congregate here in a far greater number.
» During the Shivaratri (also spelled Shivratri) festival Pashupatinath temple is lit with ghee lamps throughout the night and the temple remains open all night. Thousands of devotees take ritual baths in the Bagmati river on the day of the festival and observe a fast for the whole day. Hundreds of sadhus (sages) from different parts of Nepal and India come here on the occasion of Maha Shivaratri.

Auspicious Days to Visit
In August, during the Teej festival, thousands of women visit the temple to bathe in the holy waters of the Bagmati River. Because this ritual is meant to bring a long and happy marriage, many women dress in red saris, which are traditionally worn for wedding ceremonies. Full moon and New moon days are also considered auspicious to visit the temple.

Good to know
According to a legend recorded in local texts, especially the Nepalamahatmya and the Himavatkhanda, the Hindu Lord Shiva once fled from the other gods in Varanasi to Mrigasthali, the forest on the opposite bank of the Bagmati River from the temple. There, in the form of a gazelle, he slept with his consort Parvati. When the gods discovered him there and tried to bring him back to Varanasi, he leapt across the river to the opposite bank, where one of his horns broke into four pieces. After this, Shiva became manifest as Pashupati (Lord of Animals) in a four-face (chaturmukha) linga.

How to Reach
» There are regular bus services from Kathmandu (from Ratna Park or City Bus Station) to Patan,. It takes approximately 45 minutes to reach Goshala, the stop for Pashupatinath.
» Battery-operated Safaa tempos depart from near the Ratna Park office in Kathmandu and drops the pilgrims at Ring Road, west of Pashupatinath. Thereafter, a tempo going to Chabahil or Bodhnath can be hired.

Changu Narayan TempleChangu Narayan Temple, the oldest temple in Kathmandu valley came in existence in 4th century. The temple is adorned by some of the best specimen of stone, wood, and metal craft in the valley. The temple stands as the epitome of culture, religion, history and faith of the Kathmandu valley. 

Fast Facts

Location 22 km from Kathmandu
Importance Oldest temple in Kathmandu valley
Built in 4th century A.D.
Devoted to Hindu Lord Shiva
Major Attraction Vishnu image with ten heads and ten arms

Historical Importance

  • It is the oldest temple in Kathmandu valley.
  • A Vishnu idol with ten heads and ten arms is a fine example of stone carving from the 5th century.
  • The temple is of great importance due to its idols and shrines having rich architectural beauty.

Places to be Seen

  • Garuda Narayana Temple
  • Shrine of King Bhupalendra Malla and his mother
  • Krishna Shrine
  • Nateshvara Shrine
  • Sculpture of Sri Mahadev
  • Sculpture of Garuda
  • Shrine of Somalingeshvara
  • Sculptures: Vishnu, Durga Avalokitesvara and Garuda Ganesh
  • Ganesh Shrine
  • Bhagvati Temple
  • Vishnu Vikranta
  • Vishnu Vishvarupa
  • Lakshmi Temple Shiva Temple
  • Stone Column

Legendary places in the temple
Garuda Idol
Inside the Changunarayan temple is a esteemed figure of Garuda. The statue is offered sweets by the devotees every year on Nag Panchami. This is done in remembrance of the epic struggle with the great snake Taksaka. The drops of moisture, believed to be effective against diseases such as leprosy and ulcers, are collected by the priests.

King Bhupendra Malla Statues
Statues of King Bhupalendra Malla of Kathmandu and his mother can also be seen in a shrine. Bloody fighting characterised their politics during the 17th century but both were generous when it came to revering the gods.

Vishnu Sculpture
To the north of the temple is a sculpture of Lord Vishnu seated on Garuda (Garudasana Vishnu). This image appears on the Nepalese 10 rupee note. Vishnu sculpture dates back to 9th century.

Important Vishnu Sculptures
Vishwaroop
Vishwaroop sculpture, dating back to 8th century A.D., presents Lord Vishnu in his universal form.

Vishnu Vikrant
The stone idol, harking back to the 8th century A.D, is of the most powerful form of Lord Vishnu. It is related to the Hindu legend of Vaman, an incarnation of Vishnu, who measured space with feet.

Vishnu Riding Garuda
This figure of Vishnu mounting Garuda, the mythical bird, dates back to the 10th century A.D.

Narsimhha Vishnu
This form of Lord Vishnu, the Narsimha, is in half human and half lion form.

How to Reach
Take a taxi from Bhaktpaur to reach Changu Narayan temple. The driv would be of approximately 30 minutes.

Brief Description

Sagarmatha is an exceptional area with dramatic mountains, glaciers and deep valleys, dominated by Mount Everest, the highest peak in the world (8,848 m). Several rare species, such as the snow leopard and the lesser panda, are found in the park. The presence of the Sherpas, with their unique culture, adds further interest to this site.

Sagarmatha is an exceptional area with dramatic mountains, glaciers and deep valleys, dominated by Mount Everest, the highest peak in the world (8,848 m). Several rare species, such as the snow leopard and the lesser panda, are found in the park. The presence of the Sherpas, with their unique culture, adds further interest to this site.

Long Description

The Sagarmatha National Park includes the highest point of the Earth’s surface, Mount Everest (Sagarmatha). The park is also of major religious and cultural significance in Nepal as it abounds in holy places such as the Thyangboche and also is the homeland of the Sherpas whose way of life is unique, compared with other high-altitude dwellers.

The park encompasses the upper catchments of the Dudh Kosi River system, which is fan-shaped and forms a distinct geographical unit enclosed on all sides by high mountain ranges. The northern boundary is defined by the main divide of the Great Himalayan Range, which follows the international border with the Tibetan Autonomous Region of China. In the south, the boundary extends almost as far as Monjo.

This is a dramatic area of high, geologically young mountains and glaciers. The deeply-incised valleys cut through sedimentary rocks and underlying granites to drain southwards into the Dudh Kosi and its tributaries, which form part of the Ganges River system. The upper catchments of these rivers are fed by glaciers at the head of four main valleys, Chhukhung, Khumbu, Gokyo and Nangpa La. Lakes occur in the upper reaches, notably in the Gokyo Valley, where a number are impounded by the lateral moraine of the Ngozumpa Glacier (at 20 km the longest glacier in the park). There are seven peaks over 7,000 m. The mountains have a granite core flanked by metamorphosed sediments and owe their dominating height to two consecutive phases of upthrust. The main uplift occurred during human history, some 500,000-800,000 years ago. Evidence indicates that the uplift is still continuing at a slower rate, but natural erosion processes counteract this to an unknown degree.

In the region there are six altitudinal vegetation classed, from oak forests at the lowest elevations to lichens and mosses at the highest elevations. The Himalayan zone provides the barrier between the Palaearctic realm and the Indomalayan realm.

Most of the park (69%) comprises barren land above 5,000 m, 28% is grazing land and about 3% is forested. Six of the 11 vegetation zones in the Nepal Himalaya are represented in the park: lower subalpine; upper subalpine; lower alpine; upper alpine; and subnival zone. Oak used to be the dominant species in the upper montane zone but former stands of this species.

In common with the rest of the Nepal Himalaya, the park has a comparatively low number of mammalian species, apparently due to the geologically recent origin of the Himalaya and other evolutionary factors. The low density of mammal populations is almost certainly the result of human activities. Larger mammals include common langur, jackal, a small number of wolf, Himalayan black bear, red panda, yellow-throated marten, Himalayan weasel, masked palm civet, snow leopard, Himalayan musk deer, Indian muntjac, serow, Himalayan tahr and goral. Sambar has also been recorded. Smaller mammals include short-tailed mol, Tibetan water shrew, Himalayan water shrew; marmot, woolly hare, rat and house mouse.

Inskipp lists 152 species of bird, 36 of which are breeding species for which Nepal may hold internationally significant populations. The park is important for a number of species breeding at high altitudes. The park’s small lakes, especially those at Gokyo, are used as staging points for migrants. A total of six amphibians and seven reptiles occur or probably occur in the park.

There are approximately 2,500 Sherpa people living within the park. The people are primarily Tibetan Buddhists. Their activities are primarily agricultural or trade based. Their properties have been excluded from the park by legal definition. There is and will continue to be an influence on the people by the park and vice versa. The Sherpas are of great cultural interest, having originated from Salmo Gang in the eastern Tibetan province of Kham, some 2,000 km from their present homeland. They probably left their original home in the late 1400s or early 1500s, to escape political and military pressures, and later crossed the Nangpa La into Nepal in the early 1530s. They separated into two groups, some settling in Khumbu and others proceeding to Solu. The two clans (Minyagpa and Thimmi) remaining in Khumbu are divided into 12 subclans. Both the population and the growth of the monasteries took a dramatic upturn soon after that time. The Sherpas belong to the Nyingmapa sect of Tibetan Buddhism, which was founded by the revered Guru Rimpoche who was legendarily born of a lotus in the middle of a lake. There are several monasteries in the park, the most important being Tengpoche.

Historical Description

Created a national park on 19 July 1976 and inscribed on the World Heritage List in 1979.

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